Saturday, September 20, 2014

Too Soon?


First, I want to apologize for neglecting this blog for so long.  My negligence (it’s been almost a year since my last post...) was borderline abusive, like NFL running back abusive (too soon?). 


My intention was not to ignore the mess of thoughts ricocheting around my head like a racquetball or my commitment to providing my friends a means of procrastinating and questioning my sanity.  No.  Instead, I was busy getting a dissertation[1] completed, defended, and formatted for electronic publication (which is like publication, but not at all like publication... The whole thing is really just a cruel lie that we tell ourselves after we spend a year or more slaving over a document that maybe 50 people will read all while knowing full well that at least one of those people is our mother.  By the way, thanks for reading my dissertation, Mom!).  Oh, and I started professoring a small Midwestern liberal arts college in a large Midwestern metropolitan area (which is academic double speak for Notre Dame College in Cleveland, OH).  And my daughter was born.  She’s awesome, but is not a fan of me writing anything, ever.

Having completed this lengthy preamble, I would now like to wade back into blogdom with a brief thought piece on rhetoric, comedy, and the exigence.

The art of rhetoric is deeply entwined with the notion of exigence.  For Lloyd Bitzer, exigence was “an imperfection marked by urgency,” a reason to speak, a defect that needed to be (and could be) addressed.[2]  Rhetoric, then, is the art of appropriately identifying and addressing (speaking to) exigence.

Lately, I’ve been thinking about comedy in much the same way.  Comedy, rather than being about the appropriate response to an exigence, however, is more concerned with the exploitation of exigence.  Imperfection, defect, problem, and contradiction are the stuff of comedy.  They are the comedian’s raw materials.  Comedy and laughter, in this way, can function to indicate or uncover latent exigences in cultural discourses. 

WTF does that mean?  Essentially, I’m suggesting that comedy functions to direct our attention to things that we should be talking about.

Consider, for instance, the all-to-common joke script where a potential merry-maker comments on some disaster or tragedy and tags the comment saying, “too soon?” (see, for example, my mostly tasteless quip at the beginning of this post).  In almost every case, the “too soon” joke is an attempt to capitalize on some tragic exigence in public culture.  The “too soon” jokester’s humor hinges upon the prominence of the exigence in public discourse—that is how many people are talking about it—and the gravity—how tragic it is/was—of the event in question. 

The joke at the beginning of this post, for instance, addresses an exigence that somehow occupies 48 hours of coverage in a 24 hour newsday for ESPN (prominence) and, in each case, involves horrific violence inflicted upon a more or less defenseless person (gravity).  I would post the pictures and video here, but they still make my stomach turn.  By joking subjects that are both timely and serious, comics, meme writers, and bad jokers (that last one is just for me) draw attention to already exigent issues like domestic violence in the NFL.

What I find interesting about this kind of comedy, however, is not just that is directs attention to things worth talking about, but that it stands as a constant reminder that whichever exigence comes to the joker’s attention has not been appropriately addressed.  If the imperfection could be corrected then it would cease to be fodder for laughter.  In this way, I would argue that comedy does more than merely attracting attention to its subject because in the very act of selecting a subject the comic rhetor sorts through myriad exigencies in order to discover which is most inappropriately addressed and therefore laughable.

It may be in poor taste to make a "too soon" joke, but it's also an important reminder that some exigences--even those about which we are speaking--haven't gone away.




[1] “Laughing at American Democracy: Citizenship and the Rhetoric of Stand-up Satire” is available on an electronic database near you!  If you don’t have access to an electronic database, I’m happy to forward a copy along.
[2] The quotation is from his essay on the “Rhetorical Situation” (p.6)

Wednesday, October 16, 2013

So You're Hip To The Affordable Care Act, But Bugged By Obamacare?

In the two weeks or so since the United States House of Representatives opted to take their ball and leave because they couldn't completely gut the Affordable Care Act (aka Obamacare) there has been plenty of fodder for comic critique to go around.
While the memes, cartoons, and one-liners are amusing (See over there -->), in poking fun at our elected officials' inability to pass a budget (compromise, negotiate, you know--govern) the humor surrounding the shutdown does one of the things that humor does best--it relieves, for a brief moment of laughter, the tension of the situation.




Amidst these barbs from the left and the right, Jimmy Kimmel Live ran a bit called "six of one" on October 2--the day after the start of the shutdown--that is the perhaps the best possible representation of the worst possible aspects of U.S. political culture.  In the bit (see below), a Kimmel staffer uses the "person on the street" interview style to presumably gauge the public's opinions about the Affordable Care Act and Obamacare which, as my incredibly well-informed reader no doubt already knows (if you read the first sentence of this post), are the same thing. 
 
Each interview begins with some version of the question, "which do you prefer, Obamacare or the Affordable Care Act?"  As a follow-up, the interviewer then pushes the subject to explain why they support the plan they profess to support--a task for which they are overwhelmingly underprepared.  Their foolishness in their attempt to defend and discredit their own position provides much of the comedic payload in the bit.  What is more, that foolishness carries the additional benefit of appealing to the audience's sense of self-righteousness.  We watch the segment  from a position of superiority over the fools on the street because we enter the joke after hearing Kimmel's preamble that explains, in no uncertain terms, that the ACA and Obamacare are one and the same.

The bit is funny. And for that reason, it has circulated around the web at an incredible clip. In fact, the official YouTube site for the show indicates that the clip has been viewed, as of October 16, more than 3.5 million times--mostly, I assume, by the people who post and share things that appear on my Facebook feed.  On its surface, the bit makes an important point: we, the American people, generally don't actually know what we're talking about and in our ignorance we typically fall in line in incredibly predictable ways.

More interestingly, I would argue, the bit underscores an important component of our contemporary political culture: the question between two things that are one and the same is often the question that we, the people, are asked to answer.  When presented with only the illusion of choice we have no option but to be fools in the comedy of our so-called democracy.  However, unlike the woman whose interview bookends the segment, we are rarely offered the redemption of realizing our foolishness and transcending our pathetic lot.  We are not invited to share in the laughter of the self-righteous.  We are fools constantly prevented from learning our lesson.

What is more, the bit permits us, as the audience, the privileged vantage point of the informed observer.  It encourages us not to see ourselves in the fools on the street--and therefore partake of their redemption--but to see them as the exception rather than the rule.  From a safe distance we laugh at those people and in so doing relieve ourselves of our own foolishness. Would you, dear reader, have known that the ACA and Obamacare were the same thing if you were asked to choose between them in a completely random situation?  Really?  I expect that Kimmel probably would have been able to pull one over on me.

Importantly, the "six of one, [half dozen of another]" joke-structure is premised on the notion that the poor fool in question will necessarily see difference where there is in fact only similarity. When the ACA and Obamacare are presented independently as possible choices, they appear to be distinct and, more to the point, in opposition with one another.  This is our political culture in a nutshell.  Issues (facts, reality...) be damned, we support our side and stand opposed to those people on the other side--even when we agree. 

 



Tuesday, May 21, 2013

Where are all the Women Satirists?

In recent months, I devoured Alison Dagnes book, A Conservative Walks into a Bar: The Politics of Political Humor.  The book revolves around the question of why there are so few conservative satirists (a question that I’ve already kind of sort of written about in a previous post:Funny and Conservative/Liberal?).  The book is a super easy read and contains some really great insight courtesy of Dagnes fascinating interviews including American satirists Will Durst and Tim Slagle, comedy writer Adam Felber (Real Time with Bill Maher), Peter Sagal of NPR’s Wait, Wait… Don’t Tell Me, and 1960s secular moralist and stand-up legend Lenny Bruce.

Okay, the last one wasn’t actually in there, but it would’ve been a welcome addition if Dagnes could’ve drummed up a medium to get Lenny’s take on the question, or maybe Dustin Hoffman (star of Lenny), or some schmuck detective in New York (you know, another performance by Lenny Bruce—in substance).  Anyway…  I digress.

Either way, the book was good and Dagnes makes a nice clean case about how “the big tent” party (that would be the Dems) means a bigger pool to draw on for an audience and subject matter and therefore the potential for greater success as an entertainer.  Said another way, the Left-leaning comics probably only lean left because they are actually free market conservatives when it comes right down to it.

All of this is a giant meandering introduction for this post.  Dagnes book was interesting, but it left me wondering not why there were so few conservatives in political satire, but why there were/are so few women in political satire.

Think about it.  Which of the top-tier satire programs airing right now feature women? The Daily Show always has a female correspondent or two (Currently, four of the twelve are women: Samantha Bee, Kristen Schaal, Jessica Williams and Sarah Vowell) and Saturday Night Live—when they remember that they’re supposed to be topical and funny and not suck—has been known to permit women to drop a political bomb or two.  But aside from Tina Fey and Amy Poehler sending up Sarah Palin and Hillary Clinton during the 2008 election cycle (see video below), no program trading in political humor features a woman.


My intent is not to bring back the Jezebel accusation against The Daily Show (Initial argument— Jezebel says, "you're sexist!" and female Daily Show employees respond, "Go f@#k yourself!") and the comedy establishment.  Rather, it is to point out that the contemporary Mount Rushmore of political satirists is more likely to include a conservative satirist, say… Dennis Miller, next to Jon Stewart, Stephen Colbert and Bill Maher (who already has his libertarian edge) than it is to include a woman.

The question is why?

The answer is not because “women aren’t funny.”  Okay, I’ll grant you that Lisa Lampanelli isn’t funny, but there is a whole host of women comics who are tremendously funny.  I dare you to take in the stand-up routines and comedy records of Joan Rivers, Lily Tomlin, Jackie “Moms” Mabley (see below), Ellen DeGeneres, Rusty Warren, Whoopi Goldberg, and Margaret Cho (I could keep going, but this list should keep you busy) and tell me otherwise. 


It’s also not because women aren’t “into” politics.  According to Gallup’s demographic breakdown of the 2012 election, there not only were more women registered to vote going into the election, but they were more likely to vote than men.  In fact, the “gender gap” (Obama won the female vote by nearly 18%) has been credited as a key contribution to the 2012 election outcome.  What is more, the 2012 election was groundbreaking for women winning elections.  The current Congress boasts the highest number of both female Senators (20) and Representatives (78) in history.  Of course, even with the historic numbers in the 113th Congress we still only have 98/535 seats (or 18.3%) of the legislature representing just over half of the voting population.  If we start with the gross misrepresentation of women in politics, we might begin to outline the problem of women in political humor. 

   


First of all, the conventional wisdom about politics is that men are more interested than women and therefore men would be more likely to be interested in political humor than women.  Given the trends cited above, this is not likely the case.  What is significant here, is that comedy deals in conventional wisdom rather than reality as a place to mine punch-lines (hence why stereotypes are still so prevalent).  Thus, until the conventional wisdom changes, comedy will be more like George W. Bush—who, in Stephen Colbert’s estimation, believes the same thing Wednesday as he did Monday regardless of what happened on Tuesday—than John Kerry—who actually signs his Secretary of State Tweets “JK,” you know just in case the wind changes.


Second, the problem of the female satirist is more analogous to the problem of a female president than the problem of the female legislator.  There are 535 seats in congress, but only one in the oval office thus it is statistically less likely for a woman to become President than for a woman to become a Senator or Representative.  As Dagnes indicates in her book, political satirists are an incredibly small subset of all comedians because the audience for political comment is way smaller than the audience for fart jokes.  Thus, it follows that if there is less opportunity to be a political satirist for comedians in general then it is likely even more difficult to be a female political satirist especially since comedy tends to be a male dominated field (hence the whole “women aren’t funny” BS).  To draw on the Daily Show as an example, it’s no surprise that 33% of the correspondents are women, but it would be a big shock if one of them replaced Jon Stewart (a bit The Daily Show has tried with Samantha Bee).


Third, there may be something unique about political material that just doesn’t jive with female comic’s comedic style.  As Joanne Gilbert argues in her essay on female stand-up comedy, women in stand-up tend to favor self-deprecation as a key laugh-getting trope in order to invite the audience to both laugh at and identify with them.  Of course, men also use self-deprecation (Aristotle argued that it was the most acceptable form of humor for use by the orator), but political satirists generally avoid it.  Satire requires the comic to be the “smartest person in the room.” So even when satirists self-deprecate, they almost always do so in order to ridicule their target to an exponentially higher degree.  Generally, I am no proponent of the “men do it this way and women do it this way” approach to rhetoric, but there may be something to the role of self-deprecation in women’s humor and the rarity of female political humorists.  If nothing else, it is clear that self-deprecation and political satire don’t play well together in the sandbox of comedy.


In sum, I’m not entirely sure that I can answer the question.  I can’t put my finger on any one glaring reason why there aren’t more women doing political humor, but it does seem like a question worth asking.  In fact, it may even be more compelling than the conservative satire question because while conservatives may not be doing much political humor (excluding most of the programming on Fox News, which has to be comedy, right?) they do have access to the political structure—even the crazy ones.  Women, on the other hand, have to count 18% representation as an historic victory and can’t even make a joke about it.